October 1996 - June 1997

University of Missouri-Columbia

Corinne Valdivia, Lead Principal Investigator

Department of Agricultural Economics
Mumford Hall
Columbia MO 65211
(573) 882 4020
(573) 882 3958 (fax)



This report covers on;y one activity of the many undertaken this year in all four SR-CRSP projects in Kenya, "Regionalization of the Kenya SR-CRSP components to East Africa." Other activities by animal health, breeding, production systems and social sciences projects will be reported at the end of September 1997. Estimated budget contributed by all the projects to this activity was $20,000. Many people have contributed to this proposal, more than the team matrix reflects. We are thankful to all the people we worked with in Tanzania Uganda and Kenya, to ILRI and ICRAF for their patient input, and the people and organizations represented at the regional participatory planning by objectives workshop of March 20-21 1997. We are indebted to KARI and Dr. C. Ndiritu for hosting this activity.

Narrative Summary

Negotiating transitions: Small ruminant technologies for zones under pressure in East Africa, is the result of a participatory process to assess the strengths of the Kenya SR-CRSP with potential collaborators from the East Africa Region. Through the past nine months the team traveled to Tanzania and Uganda to present and discuss regionalization in new research areas, that build on the needs of each country and the strengths and expertise developed by the Kenya SR-CRSP. Several workshops were conducted, two country specific, one regional, and several follow up meetings to assess sites, collaborators and on going goat development projects. A partnership was built among research institutions, both national and international, non governmental organizations working in the region, local grass root organizations and universities to identify the objectives and activities for a three to six year program in the region.

The research proposal for regionalization aims to contribute to food security and economic growth in rural areas of resource poor farmers in mixed crop livestock systems. It addresses: a) individuals and households that benefit from diversification through small ruminants, with a focus on impact on women, as past assessments of show small ruminants as a women domain; b) sustainable multiplication strategies, such as the on going multiplication of the KDPG with large commercial, small farmer group multiplication ventures, to develop methods that are useful to any introduced small ruminants in the region; c) integrated approaches to Haemonchus control; and d) enabling environments for demand driven research, to effectively interface with development. Assessment methods will be developed to measure impact and adoption of technologies on households, groups and enterprises, and to evaluate social capital in technological formulation, dissemination of information and adoption. Demand driven sustainable multiplication models, will be designed for the KDPG and other breeds. Human capital development through research training on-farm, and development of participatory working groups integrated by farmers, non governmental and extension personnel, and researchers are integral to the proposal. Long run effective demand driven research depends on well trained researchers that will develop technological alternatives based on farmers needs.

This project has developed partnerships in the U.S. with Heifer Project International, Virginia State University, Washington State University, Winrock International, and University of Missouri as the leading institution. In the region partnerships have been developed with the Kenya Agricultural Research Institute, HPI, International Livestock Research Institute and the commercial multipliers of the KDPG in Kenya. In Tanzania a partnership was developed with Selian Agricultural Research Institute, the Livestock Production Research Institute, World Vision, The Evangelical Lutheran Church, Sokoine University of Agriculture, and HPI. In Uganda our collaborators will be the National Agricultural Research Organization, Makerere University, the Busoga Diocese, HPI, and Joy Children Center. Our aim is to contribute to the development of livestock technologies and methods that facilitate the transition of farmers and households from a mainly subsistence and food insecure reality, to one in which individuals and their households achieve food security, economic growth, and empowerment.

Problem Model

In line with the New CRSP, Negotiating Transitions: Small ruminant technologies for zones under pressure responds to a call for continuation proposals by the SR-CRSP Management Entity of the University of California in July 1996 (UCD, 1996), and to recommendations by the External Evaluation Panel Report of 1996, and the Advisory Panel Meeting of October 1995 (UCD, 1995). It reflects the goals and objectives of the new CRSP, addressing priority areas identified by the East African Regional Livestock Assessment Workshop (UCD, 1996). The assessment team proposal fits with the new livestock CRSP, because it targets priority number one of the Economic Growth/ Policy thrust: "Ensuring the food security and development needs of resource poor households, with the objective of using livestock, especially small ruminants to enable resource poor households to cope with stress and enter the monetary economy"(UCD, 1996).

The problem model addressed is food security and economic growth for resource poor households in rural areas of East Africa. It focuses on achieving security and growth by providing alternatives that diversify the economic portfolio through livestock technologies. We address this problem as we believe that regionalization of the Kenya SR-CRSP to East Africa must be grounded on experiences of the current SR-CRSP to identify new directions. We started this process proposing those that could be delivered in the given time frame, and assist farmers in the transition from mostly subsistence to increasingly market-oriented activities; by focusing on negotiations that farmers, their groups, researchers and developing agents, engage in to foster economic security, growth, and empowerment, necessary for fostering democracy.

The problem model encompasses several actors and layers in the continuum of research and development. The household and the individual, mostly women as they engage in livestock and household reproductive activities (Boserup, 1990; de Haan et al, 1996; Njeru, 1997; Valdivia and Nolan, 1996). We focus on the contributions of the livestock enterprise as a vehicle for economic growth of the household; the empowerment of women, as a safety net as they control the enterprise and access to high quality proteins (milk and meat); to the environment through proper management of livestock and nutrient cycling; and the social mechanism that insure the viability of the enterprise.

It also addresses identified need in the region for multiplication strategies and models applicable to diverse types of breeds. Several development organizations use goats as a means to increase the welfare of very resource poor households, as a step to further diversification. We chose the Kenyan Dual Purpose Goat multiplication strategies as a case study for sustainable demand driven models. Large commercial multiplication of the KDPG, a strategy pursued, is already on-going at two commercial farms in Kenya. Our intention is to build demand driven commercially viable strategies, with farmer groups, large commercial multipliers and private voluntary organizations. The farmer and the group levels will be studied to determine social conditions and networks that build on social capital, and contribute to development and adaptation of technologies and new enterprises. Goats as an evaluation of enterprise within a household unit, contribute to the methodologies for evaluating microenterprises.

The research on station will concentrate on Haemonchus Resistance, through an integrated approach that includes genetic resistance, animal health through pen-side tests to provide cost effective recommendations on Haemonchus treatments, and work with farmers to identify best and second best options to deal with the constraint. All these are in line with increasing efficiency.

A fourth layer, human capital development in National Agricultural Research Systems, universities in the region and the US, and non governmental organizations and networks currently working in development through small ruminants and other livestock alternatives. Our approach is to negotiate this process by developing on-farm research capacity, at the enterprise and multiplication levels. We capitalize on human capital developed by the SR-CRSP in the region, as a viable alternative for development must be designed from within (Delgado, 1996).

In all these layers several actors are identified. The farmers and their groups, the NGOs and extension agents, the researchers, the donors. Each of these play roles that are changing as we move towards a multiple knowledge paradigm. Negotiations among these actors, at different layers becomes central. Methods to assist the process by which research needs are identified at different layers with all actors involved will facilitate the interface of research and development. A synthesis of the problem model, its relevance, and the constraints that exist and that the project hopes to address.

Original Hypothesis

Introduction and regionalization of the already developed and tested Kenya Dual Purpose Goat technologies into the high potential and semi-arid areas of East African will lead to improvements in household and community incomes. This will provide economic and food security, fulfilling safety first requirements to allow diversification to other economic activities.

General objectives and activities were identified at the March Conference (Travel Report, Valdivia, March, 1997). These were further refined at the May Workshop in Columbia. In a refined hypothesis no distinction was made of the agroecological zone, though there was agreement that the focus should be highland and semi-arid mixed crop livestock systems, as these were identified as areas of high pay-off in growth and sustainability impacts (WI, 1992; Gardiner and Devendra, 1995; UCD, 1996).

The general objectives defined at the Participatory Planning Workshop (Nairobi, March 1997) were redefined in order to contribute to diversify farmers options in a sustainable manner: