October 1996 - June 1997
University of Missouri-Columbia
Corinne Valdivia, Lead Principal Investigator
Department of Agricultural Economics
Columbia MO 65211
(573) 882 4020
(573) 882 3958 (fax)
NEGOTIATING TRANSITIONS: SMALL RUMINANT TECHNOLOGIES FOR ZONES UNDER
PRESSURE IN EAST AFRICA
This report covers on;y one activity of the many undertaken this year
in all four SR-CRSP projects in Kenya, "Regionalization of the Kenya SR-CRSP
components to East Africa." Other activities by animal health, breeding,
production systems and social sciences projects will be reported at the
end of September 1997. Estimated budget contributed by all the projects
to this activity was $20,000. Many people have contributed to this proposal,
more than the team matrix reflects. We are thankful to all the people we
worked with in Tanzania Uganda and Kenya, to ILRI and ICRAF for their patient
input, and the people and organizations represented at the regional participatory
planning by objectives workshop of March 20-21 1997. We are indebted to
KARI and Dr. C. Ndiritu for hosting this activity.
Negotiating transitions: Small ruminant technologies for zones under pressure in East Africa, is the result of a participatory process to assess the strengths of the Kenya SR-CRSP with potential collaborators from the East Africa Region. Through the past nine months the team traveled to Tanzania and Uganda to present and discuss regionalization in new research areas, that build on the needs of each country and the strengths and expertise developed by the Kenya SR-CRSP. Several workshops were conducted, two country specific, one regional, and several follow up meetings to assess sites, collaborators and on going goat development projects. A partnership was built among research institutions, both national and international, non governmental organizations working in the region, local grass root organizations and universities to identify the objectives and activities for a three to six year program in the region.
The research proposal for regionalization aims to contribute to food security and economic growth in rural areas of resource poor farmers in mixed crop livestock systems. It addresses: a) individuals and households that benefit from diversification through small ruminants, with a focus on impact on women, as past assessments of show small ruminants as a women domain; b) sustainable multiplication strategies, such as the on going multiplication of the KDPG with large commercial, small farmer group multiplication ventures, to develop methods that are useful to any introduced small ruminants in the region; c) integrated approaches to Haemonchus control; and d) enabling environments for demand driven research, to effectively interface with development. Assessment methods will be developed to measure impact and adoption of technologies on households, groups and enterprises, and to evaluate social capital in technological formulation, dissemination of information and adoption. Demand driven sustainable multiplication models, will be designed for the KDPG and other breeds. Human capital development through research training on-farm, and development of participatory working groups integrated by farmers, non governmental and extension personnel, and researchers are integral to the proposal. Long run effective demand driven research depends on well trained researchers that will develop technological alternatives based on farmers needs.
This project has developed partnerships
in the U.S. with Heifer Project International, Virginia State University,
Washington State University, Winrock International, and University of Missouri
as the leading institution. In the region partnerships have been developed
with the Kenya Agricultural Research Institute, HPI, International Livestock
Research Institute and the commercial multipliers of the KDPG in Kenya.
In Tanzania a partnership was developed with Selian Agricultural Research
Institute, the Livestock Production Research Institute, World Vision, The
Evangelical Lutheran Church, Sokoine University of Agriculture, and HPI.
In Uganda our collaborators will be the National Agricultural Research
Organization, Makerere University, the Busoga Diocese, HPI, and Joy Children
Center. Our aim is to contribute to the development of livestock technologies
and methods that facilitate the transition of farmers and households from
a mainly subsistence and food insecure reality, to one in which individuals
and their households achieve food security, economic growth, and empowerment.
In line with the New CRSP, Negotiating Transitions: Small ruminant technologies for zones under pressure responds to a call for continuation proposals by the SR-CRSP Management Entity of the University of California in July 1996 (UCD, 1996), and to recommendations by the External Evaluation Panel Report of 1996, and the Advisory Panel Meeting of October 1995 (UCD, 1995). It reflects the goals and objectives of the new CRSP, addressing priority areas identified by the East African Regional Livestock Assessment Workshop (UCD, 1996). The assessment team proposal fits with the new livestock CRSP, because it targets priority number one of the Economic Growth/ Policy thrust: "Ensuring the food security and development needs of resource poor households, with the objective of using livestock, especially small ruminants to enable resource poor households to cope with stress and enter the monetary economy"(UCD, 1996).
The problem model addressed is food security and economic growth for resource poor households in rural areas of East Africa. It focuses on achieving security and growth by providing alternatives that diversify the economic portfolio through livestock technologies. We address this problem as we believe that regionalization of the Kenya SR-CRSP to East Africa must be grounded on experiences of the current SR-CRSP to identify new directions. We started this process proposing those that could be delivered in the given time frame, and assist farmers in the transition from mostly subsistence to increasingly market-oriented activities; by focusing on negotiations that farmers, their groups, researchers and developing agents, engage in to foster economic security, growth, and empowerment, necessary for fostering democracy.
The problem model encompasses several actors and layers in the continuum of research and development. The household and the individual, mostly women as they engage in livestock and household reproductive activities (Boserup, 1990; de Haan et al, 1996; Njeru, 1997; Valdivia and Nolan, 1996). We focus on the contributions of the livestock enterprise as a vehicle for economic growth of the household; the empowerment of women, as a safety net as they control the enterprise and access to high quality proteins (milk and meat); to the environment through proper management of livestock and nutrient cycling; and the social mechanism that insure the viability of the enterprise.
It also addresses identified need in the region for multiplication strategies and models applicable to diverse types of breeds. Several development organizations use goats as a means to increase the welfare of very resource poor households, as a step to further diversification. We chose the Kenyan Dual Purpose Goat multiplication strategies as a case study for sustainable demand driven models. Large commercial multiplication of the KDPG, a strategy pursued, is already on-going at two commercial farms in Kenya. Our intention is to build demand driven commercially viable strategies, with farmer groups, large commercial multipliers and private voluntary organizations. The farmer and the group levels will be studied to determine social conditions and networks that build on social capital, and contribute to development and adaptation of technologies and new enterprises. Goats as an evaluation of enterprise within a household unit, contribute to the methodologies for evaluating microenterprises.
The research on station will concentrate on Haemonchus Resistance, through an integrated approach that includes genetic resistance, animal health through pen-side tests to provide cost effective recommendations on Haemonchus treatments, and work with farmers to identify best and second best options to deal with the constraint. All these are in line with increasing efficiency.
A fourth layer, human capital development in National Agricultural Research Systems, universities in the region and the US, and non governmental organizations and networks currently working in development through small ruminants and other livestock alternatives. Our approach is to negotiate this process by developing on-farm research capacity, at the enterprise and multiplication levels. We capitalize on human capital developed by the SR-CRSP in the region, as a viable alternative for development must be designed from within (Delgado, 1996).
In all these layers several actors are identified. The farmers and their
groups, the NGOs and extension agents, the researchers, the donors. Each
of these play roles that are changing as we move towards a multiple knowledge
paradigm. Negotiations among these actors, at different layers becomes
central. Methods to assist the process by which research needs are identified
at different layers with all actors involved will facilitate the interface
of research and development. A synthesis of the problem model, its relevance,
and the constraints that exist and that the project hopes to address.
Introduction and regionalization of the already developed and tested Kenya Dual Purpose Goat technologies into the high potential and semi-arid areas of East African will lead to improvements in household and community incomes. This will provide economic and food security, fulfilling safety first requirements to allow diversification to other economic activities.
General objectives and activities were identified at the March Conference (Travel Report, Valdivia, March, 1997). These were further refined at the May Workshop in Columbia. In a refined hypothesis no distinction was made of the agroecological zone, though there was agreement that the focus should be highland and semi-arid mixed crop livestock systems, as these were identified as areas of high pay-off in growth and sustainability impacts (WI, 1992; Gardiner and Devendra, 1995; UCD, 1996).
The general objectives defined at the Participatory Planning Workshop (Nairobi, March 1997) were redefined in order to contribute to diversify farmers options in a sustainable manner:
Develop livestock multiplication strategies off station that are sustainable, and therefore provide animals to the market.
Develop demand driven research agenda to guarantee adoption and impact, through off station research activities and providing and integrating networks of all actors.
Continue to develop a cadre of researchers in Africa and globally that
can effectively work in a demand driven environment.
Food Security and Economic Growth
Rural areas of East Africa suffer from food insecurity resulting in high levels of malnutrition affecting 30 percent of the population (Sharma et al., 1996). The highlands and semi-arid areas are a special challenge as these concentrate the highest level of malnutrition, between 20 and 40 percent (Sharma et al., 1996). These areas are confronted with the challenge of securing their livelihood while increasing the productivity of their resources to cater to the increased market demand to increase production through productivity rather than expansion of the agricultural frontier, a path taken in the past (Eponou, 1996). Added to this challenge is to achieve this through sustainable means that protect and increase the quality of its resource base. The green revolution left out semiarid environments and the highlands, resulting in a lack of supply of appropriate technologies. Semi-arid zones, the warm sub-humid tropic zone, and the cool tropic zone experienced the smallest increase in land and labor productivity (Sharma et al., 1996). Probable causes of less productivity in the highlands are inferior resource base, harsher climate, and topography. Therefore ... "increasing food production in rain fed areas in ways that conserve and enhance their resource base is an extraordinarily difficult task, given the uncertainty of rainfall" (Sharma et al., 1996,11). Semi-arid areas especially are characterized by low productivity and droughts (Gill, 1991), which periodically cause famine, as households are unable to cope with these perturbations. As a consequence, human nutritional stress is prevalent and generally inadequate. High population density, land fragmentation and intensive cropping characterize highland areas.
Fat intake is very low in children and their mothers, as a study of Kenya showed (Calloway, 1995). "It is the micronutrients supplied predominantly by animal products or affected by their presence that are likely to be deficient in the diets of Kenya toddlers"(Calloway, 1995, 15). Milk and cheese intake marked better growth in children. This underlines the importance of seeking interventions that will increase the level of animal outputs, income and economic security at the household level, in highland and semiarid regions, and that technologies should be in the domain of individuals that have an impact on household nutrition.
Liquid assets, such as the KDPG, off-farm migration, and diversifying
the economic portfolio, are strategies that contribute to smoothing consumption
and increasing food security. (Gill, 1991, 54). Development of a sustainable
enterprise and demand driven commercial multiplication strategies contributes
to alleviating these constraints, as will be presented next. In the process
of development of viable goat small ruminant enterprises diseases and animal
health services have been identified as an important constraint (WI, 1992;
Gardiner and Devendra, 1995).
Contribution of Small Ruminants: The KDPG
At the household level small holder resource poor farmers in crop-livestock systems of East Africa are faced with consumption and income shocks resulting from variable climate, volatile prices, diseases, pests and other idiosyncratic risks. In this context small ruminants have been found to act as a buffer and a mechanism to smooth consumption and income. Small ruminants generate outputs such as milk and manure, while playing an important role as liquid assets. Households may liquidate them in times of stress (Meltzner, 1995; Fafchamps et al, 1996; Reardon et al, 1989; Nyaribo et al., 1995).
Small ruminants are usually the domain of women in mixed crop livestock systems (Valdivia and Nolan, 1996; Njeru, 1997; de Haan et al., 1996; Sheikh and Valdivia, 1993), with a primary role in resource and output allocation, especially milk, and marketing, often depending on the culture (Lutta, 1997). Research shows (Kusterer, 1989) that the process of accumulation starts by securing a certain level of safety, and not risking current living standards. Only when an insurance mechanism, the goats and the groups in this case, are satisfied, will the households invest in higher yielding and higher risk income generating activities.
Safety First, Diversification, and Investment: Risk management ex ante calls for diversification, integrating a new economic enterprise diversifying the economic portfolio, and accumulation. Ongoing processes of change increase the uncertainty and risk in which decisions are made by households, who follow a "safety first" rationale (Kusterer, 1989; Dunn, Kalaitzandonakes and Valdivia, 1996). This implies that households will not make decisions that will endanger their current level of security and their ability to reproduce their household economy.
Groups and network: Social Capital and Farmer Groups
In organizing multiplication, investment possibilities, diffusion of information, formulation of goals, constraints, identifying needs, accessing inputs (animal health), and credit (group lending forms).
Research on impact assessment of the KDPGs on farm indicates that the KDPG is an activity that integrates and diversifies the economic portfolio, dominated usually by the female head of household, as off-farm employment and seasonal migration accentuated during drought periods, is common in Machakos (Gill, 1991). At the Coast income generated by the KDPG enterprise after two years is equivalent to remittances, and is important in areas where access to credit due to poverty is low or non existent. Liquid assets, such as small ruminants are important in a diversification strategy that contributes to reduce market and climatic risks, as well as maximizes use of available resources (Valdivia and Nolan, 1996).
For a large number of households in these areas in transition, goats are a major source of food and income. The traditional goat production systems rely on indigenous breeds whose overall productivity is generally low and whose disposal to market is determined by immediate monetary needs rather than any other biological criteria. Given the increase in population in these areas, and growth in demand for food of animal origin, there is need for appropriate and widely applicable technologies that can increase goat productivity in these areas, and overall food availability.
The KDPG is a tropicalized composite breed of goat composed of equal proportions of Toggenburg, Anglo-nubian, East African and Galla that has the potential to survive and thrive in the marginal areas with proven off-take in small scale holdings. The Kenya Dual Purpose Goat is a viable intervention for such marginal areas introduced as a breed in small scale pure breeding schemes or upgrading schemes using KDPG bucks to genetically improve the productivity of other local breeds. This is one way of incorporating high performance genes without the negative genotype by environment interactions.
Although the markets are not very well developed in these areas, the KDPG has a high potential for growth rate (about 75 g/day in pre-weaning growth) and milk production (peak yield 2.0 Kg of milk per day with supplementation). Therefore the turnover of realized products in the young markets will not only raise incomes and nutrient intake per household, but also stimulate community development ensuring sustainability of the introduced technology. This may contribute to increased availability of milk and marketable surplus, providing income for the development of new microenterprises, and increase small holder commercialization.
The potential for socio-economic impact with the KDPG at household and community level such as women self help groups, schools and rural training centers is high compared with high potential and peri-urban areas where there are a multiplicity of alternative sources of household and community income. Our focus on small holders and goats lends itself to work with women because of the high rate of male out migration that leave them as the primary farm and household managers.
The contributions of the research proposed by this team
The aim of food security and economic growth in East Africa, and the rest of the world will be accomplished through integrated approaches that bring together all actors involved in the process of change and provide alternatives that are flexible and can be inserted in the economic portfolio of resource poor households. As many have stated (Eponou, 1996; Scherr and Hazell, 1993; Delgado, 1997), it requires a different perspective, one that includes all actors, from the individual and groups that incorporate and transform these options to the developers of the ideas and alternatives and those that present and transform them as options. Traditionally called the researchers, producers and extension and development agents, this proposal offers an opportunity, through small ruminant technologies and alternative enterprises, to bring together to an even plain all these institutions, to formulate evaluate and transform options that are viable for the development of small ruminant enterprises.
From the principle of partnering with farmers groups, commercial farmers and non governmental organizations, to the actual development of strategies for multiplication and conducting research in small and large commercial farm settings, this research aims to develop methods.
Constraints addressed by this problem model are those identified by
several assessment studies. These include food insecurity and lack of economic
growth, lack of empowerment of individuals, especially women, sustainability
of crop-livestock systems and nutrient cycling, Helminthiasis, genetic
resistance, lack of social science research experience, need to build partnerships
to foster market integration and economic growth.
Assessment Team Process and Progress
Following is a time line of activities
pursued in the development of the proposal:
October 96: Missouri and Nairobi Workshops
Nov-Dec 96: Concept Paper Development
January 97: Tanzania and Uganda Workshops
February 97: Tanzania and Uganda Position Papers and visit with potential collaborators
March 97: Regional Participatory Planning by Objectives Workshop
April 97: Tanzania and Uganda site visits and participatory appraisals
May-July 97: Final Proposal Formulation
Overview of activities and progress
The annual workplans of the four projects that conform the two Kenya CRSP components, stated that the principal investigators would assess if there were products and experiences from the Kenya SR-CRSP that could be regionalized to East Africa. At a meeting in October, they and collaborators in Kenya agreed to prepare a proposal that would focus on the regionalization of the Kenya Dual Purpose Goat Approach and Technologies to East Africa, focusing on activities that would increase food security, market integration and commercialization in communities in transition. Agroecological conditions (semi-arid and highlands) and budget constraints were factors in the selection of Tanzania and Uganda to build partnerships for regionalization.
A concept paper was developed and presented at workshops in Tanzania and Uganda, attended by their national research organizations, non governmental organizations, both local and international, grassroots organizations, and with university faculty. With our potential collaborators, visits to farmers, sites and facilities took place in three opportunities, both in Tanzania and Uganda. This was possible with the support of KARI and potential collaborators.
As intended a Participatory Planning by objectives took place in March. Along with the researchers NGOS and farmer groups from Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda, international centers (ILRI and ICRAF) participated. At this workshop the objectives and general activities were identified, as well as the sites and main contact people of each country team. The teams are not only interdisciplinary, they represent several stakeholders, research, extension, non governmental organizations, and farmers groups. The Tanzania and Uganda position papers were presented at the workshop as part of the planning. Ample interest in the proposed activities was also notable in the case of NGOs working with resource poor families that use goat projects as a mean to improve household welfare. We are partnering with Heifer Project International, with the Joy Children Center in Uganda, with FARM Africa in the development of networks and assessment of goat multiplication strategies.
As part of the regionalization, potential sites for multiplication were evaluated. Another workshop was held in Missouri at the 19 through 21 of May, to narrow the objectives and activities identified at the workshop, that were ample and general, as reported in Valdivia's March 1997 trip report. Commercial multipliers in Kenya continue to grow as part of the regionalization activities, this will be reported on in September by Texas A&M.
The team evolved. New partners in the US were incorporated as activities were identified. Virginia State University reflects a shift to multiplication, and integrated Hameonchus control, collaborating in Haemonchus resistance research with KARI and Washington State University. A partnership with Heifer Project International to collaborate on new approaches to integrate research and development. The increase interest in nutrient cycling (WI, 1992) and soil fertility constraints resulted in a partnership with Dr. Moses Onim of Winrock International (WI). Dr. Bob Mc Graw, Agronomy at MU, will assist on resource evaluation and training opportunities. In the development of social science research in the region (WI, 1992) Dr. Henk Knipscheer of the Social Sciences Research Network (WI) to develop small grants in social sciences. A partnership with the Market-oriented Smallholder Dairy team at ILRI lead by Dr. W. Thorpe, through Dr. S. Staal has also been identified.
Dr. Jerry Taylor from Texas A&M was unable to continue in this new phase, but along with Dr. Francis Ruvuna contributed to this proposal. Dr. Jim Yazman worked closely with us, but with the shift from farming systems research to nutrient cycling and soil fertility Dr. Onim was identified.
Linkages with all the potential collaborators have been established, potential sites for multiplication and assessment of the KDPG identified. An integrated animal health research plan for the enterprise, multiplication models and Haemonchus research, are being developed. Research on group approaches to technology integration, and the role of social capital on impact of development projects and technological adoption is on-going. A web site for information dissemination, and a private list for the proposal development and discussions were developed this year. Several NGOs were identified and contacts established.
Work with students to develop their PhD research proposals in line with activities identified continues. A Kenyan student completed a two semester internship on women groups and the KDPG impact assessment. Finally through the activities in breeding a third commercial multiplier has been identified, and a contract was signed. There are now three commercial multipliers of the KDPG in Kenya.
The two general objectives, and several activities were identified at
the March Participatory Planning Workshop. These were discussed refined
and narrowed to four more specific objectives and corresponding outputs
and activities. These are:
Objective 1: Multiplication systems that provide farmers access to
improved small ruminants in East Africa
1. Sustainable demand driven multiplication of the KDPGs in Tanzania
Uganda and Kenyawhich includes commercial and farmer group multiplication
1. An interdisciplianry baseline assessment of existing multiplication and extension strategies, potential multipliers, markets distribution strategies for KDPGs.
2. Evaluation of genetic resources to design multiplication and distributions schemes.
3. Design appropriate monitoring techniques for performance evaluation, and economic analysis.
4. Establish nucleus breeding units or open nucleus as appropriate.
5. Establish registration of KDPG breeding association in Tanzania and
2. Process for sustainable demand driven off station multiplication for goats.
1. Develop an instrument for the socioeconomic and technical assessment
of the viability of multiplication strategies.
Objective 2: Develop and evaluate sustainable goat enterprises for
resource poor farmers.
1. Develop a sustainable goat enterprise that diversifies the household economic portfolio
1. Provide cost effective animal health options for farmers.
2. Feed resource utilization strategies, and nutrient cycling.
3. Household models to: a) evaluate adoption and impact of the KDPG
on the economic portfolio and diversification; b) measure impact on women
and household welfare; and c) measure the effect of markets on adoption
of technologies to provide policy recommendations.
2. Establish three working groups to assess goat enterprise research which include farmers, NGOs, and researchers interacting horizontally in the region.
1. Develop concertation groups that include farmers, researcher, non
governmental organizations, extension, private sector and government agencies,
that meet twice a year in each country to assess activities, evaluate progress
and review proposed activities for the following year.
Objective 3: Develop integrated strategies for Haemonchus control.
1. Identify twenty new resistant goats in the nucleus herd.
1. Performance-tested elite Haemonchus
resistant breeding group that maintains meat and milk production traits.
2. Penside test for haemonchosis.
1. Develop a pen-side cELISA to estimate
Haemonchus burden in goats and sheep.
3. Critical evaluation of local treatments for internal parasites.
1. Identify one promising local treatment
for internal parasites.
Objective 4: To contribute an enabling environment, focused on human
capacity, that improves demand driven research
1. Internships and graduate research opportunities that contribute to development of on-farm research capacity in a three year frame work.
1. Identify activities in objectives 1, 2, and 3 that incorporate interns from Sokoine Agricultural University, or master and PhD students from Makerere University or University of Nairobi.
2. Prepare proposals to Rockefeller Doctoral Research Grants in Agricultural
2. Methods to identify and strengthen group based approaches that facilitate formulation development and integration of goat technologies.
1. Baseline assessment of non governmental organizations, and grassroots organizations working with farmer groups in goat development projects.
2. Develop two case studies of distinct approaches to development with goat enterprises.
3. Develop indicators to assess groups for success in developing enterprises
and information flows.
3. Participation in existing networks and lead a yearly regional meeting on the interface between research and development of livestock technologies in East Africa.
1. Yearly Small Ruminant Workshop in conjunction with group meetings, and in collaboration with NGOs, research institutions and universities, in a rotating basis in Tanzania, Uganda and Kenya.
2. Local contests to promote goats and goat production, that would include promotion of goat milk and meat, use of by-products and judging of animals or farmers competitions where participants visited farmers and assessed progress during a field visit.
3. Establish a Web site with discussion areas, publications and information on going research and development activities. Arrange access to these electronic networks.
4. Participation in the Regional Livestock Network (ILRI), TAGONET (Tanzanian
goat network), and others to promote integration of stakeholders.
Objectives 1 and 2 stated above are presented in attached tables. Rather
than state team members due to lack of space, the specialties and disciplines
are included. Ug corresponds to Uganda, Tz to Tanzania and Ke to Kenya.
Expertise of team members is listed in the next section on Assessment Team
Members. In terms of disciplinary participation in the U.S., University
of Missouri provides leadership on agricultural economics and rural sociology,
Virginia State University on multiplication and genetic resistance research,
Washington State University on Animal Health Research on station and on
farm, Winrock International on nutrient cycling and soil fertility research
in Africa, and with regional research networks, and Heifer Project International
in development and non governmental organizations strategies for improving
household welfare through livestock. These members will work with regional
research coordinators and national collaborating scientists and development
agents as counterparts.
Assessment Team Members
Corinne Valdivia, Research Assistant Professor, University of Missouri-Columbia
Jere L. Gilles, Associate Professor, University of Missouri-Columbia
Bob McGraw, Associate Professor, University of Missouri-Columbia
Travis McGuire, Professor, Washington State University
Fred Rurangirwa, Associate Professor, Washington State University
Terry Gipson, Assistant Professor, Virginia State University
Dan Gudahl, Program Director for Africa, Heifer Project International
Moses Onim, PhD, Nutrient Cycling and Soil Scientist, Winrock International
Henk Knipscheer, African Social Sciences Network, Winrock International
A.N. Mbabu, PhD, Leader Socioeconomics Division, Kenya Agricultural Research Institute and University of Missouri
A.N. Abate, PhD, A.D. Animal Production, Kenya Agricultural Research Institute
Patrick Shompole, PhD, Animal Health and Biotechnology, KARI*
Joseph Kogi, V.M.D, Breeding, KARI
Lutta Muhammad, PhD, Research Officer Socioeconomics, KARI
P. Wandera, PhD, Small Ruminant Research, KARI
George Muhoho, Commercial Multiplier, Kirathe Ltd.
Wilson, Commercial Multiplier, Kilifi Plantations
Alex Kirui, Director Kenya, Heifer Project International
Kenneth Otieno, PhD, Forages, Kakamega, KARI
W. W. Wapakala, FARM-Africa Kenya
S. Lyimo, Farming Systems Research Coordinator, Selian Agricultural Research Institute*
L. A. Mtenga, L. A., PhD, Animal Sciences, Sokoine University of Agriculture*
V.R.M. Muhikambele, PhD, Animal Husbandry, Sokoine University of Agriculture
D. S. C. Sendalo, PhD, Small Ruminants, Livestock Production Rsch Institute, Mpwapwa
Erwin Kinsey, Director Tanzania, HPI
Ruben Shoo, PhD. Technical Programs, World Vision Tanzania
G. Sudi, PhD, Evangelical Lutheran Church Tanzania-HQ Arusha
W.K. Ndyanabo, National Agricultural Research Organization*
Emily Twinamasiko, Animal Health, National Agricultural Research Organization
Ebong, C. PhD, Program Leader Animal Production, NAARI
F. B. Bareeba, PhD, MUFAF
Binta Hilary, Makerere University
L. E. Makokha, Joy Children Center
G. Nadiope, Busoga Goat Project
E. Ssewanyana, National Agricultural Research Organization
Bernard Muyeya, Director Uganda HPI
* coordinator in country
International Centers and NGOs:
Steve Staal, Agricultural Economics, International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI)*
Jon Tanner, Livestock Nutritionist, ILRI
Bill Thorpe, Market Oriented Small Holder Dairy Team Leader, ILRI
Christie Peacock, Director, FARM Africa, London
Other Collaborators in the U.S.:
N. de Haan, Research Assistant Rural Sociology, University of Missouri
D. Martínez, Research Associate, International Programs University of Missouri
G. Njeru, Kenya Agricultural Research Institute
D. Sheikh, Research Officer, KARI and doctoral student agricultural
economics, University of Missouri
In the US
University of Missouri
200 Mumford Hall
Columbia MO 65211
(573) 882 4020 (573) 882 3958 fax
Heifer Project International
Little Rock, AR 72202
(501) 376 6836 (501) 376 8906
Virginia State University
Petersburg VA 23806
(804) 524 8717
(804) 524 5186 (fax)
Washington State University
402 Bustard Hall
Pullman WA 99164-7040
(509) 335 6045
(509) 335 6094 (fax)
In East Africa
Kenya Agricultural Research Institute
Box 58137, Nairobi Kenya
(254) 2 630800
(254) 2 630818 (fax)
Livestock Production Research Institute
Box 202, Mpwapwa
Evangelical Lutheran Church of Tanzania
Box 3033, Arusha, Tanzania
Selian Agricultural Research Institute
Box 6024, Arusha
Workd Vision Tanzania
057 8248 (fax)
Sokoine University of Agriculture
056 4617 (fax)
Busoga Goat Project
P.O. Box 1658 Jinja, Uganda
Joy Children Center
National Agricultural Research Organization
P.O. Box 30709
(254) 2 631499 (fax)
9-10 Southhampton Place
London WC1A 2DA
(0171) 4300460 (fax)
Ebong, C., E, Twinamasiko, W. K. Ndyanabo, F. B. Bareeba, G. W. Lubega,
Rubaire-Akiiki, E. Ssewanyana, J. Oluka, S. Byenka, D. T. L. Ddungu and
J. Magona. 1997. National Position Paper: Introduction of the KDPG and
Small Ruminant Technologies For Improvement of Food Security and Household
Incomes in Communities in Transition in Uganda. Presented at the Participatory
Planning Workshop, KARI, Nairobi, March 20-21. 9Pp.
KARI and SR-CRSP. 1997. Proceedings of
the Twelfth Scientific Workshop. Nairobi, Kenya. University of Missouri
Lyimo, S. D., Mtenga, L. A. G. Sudi, N.
F. Massawe, D. C. S. Sendalo, and V. R. Muhikambele. 1997. Diffusion and
Regionalization of the Small Ruminant Collaborative Research Support Programme
(SR-CRSP) Kenya Dual Purpose Goat Technology in Tanzania. Selian Agricultural
Research Institute. Mimeograph 27Pp.
Njeru, Grace. 1997. The role of women in
agricultural production in developing countries: A case study of farmers
with the Kenya Dual Purpose Goat. Kenya-SR-CRSP Technical Report Series
TR-MU 97-01. University of Missouri-Columbia.
Shoo, Reuben. 1997. "World Vision Tanzania
(WVT) Experience in Rural Community Development Projects. Presented at
the SR-CRSP Kenya Regionalization Workshop. Nairobi.
Valdivia, C., E. Dunn and C. Jetté. 1996. Diversification, a Risk Management Strategy in an Andean Agropastoral Community. In: American Journal of Agricultural Economics. 78 (5) December: .
Valdivia, C. and M. F. Nolan. 1996. Sociological and Economic Analysis
of Small Ruminant Production Systems Annual Report 1996. University of
Missouri Columbia. 41 Pp.
The SR-CRSP at MU: Social Sciences in the SR-CRSP, a Web site that publishes
news, general information and technical reports on the Kenya Bolivia and
Indonesia experiences. Since November 1996.
Abstracts Presentations and Workshops
Presentations and Posters
Gilles, J.L. 1997. Synthesis thesis of themes, positions and concerns
raised. Presented at the Participatory Planing by Objectives SR-CRSP Workshop.
Lutta, Muhammad. 1997. The Kenya Dual Purpose Goat in Semi-arid and
Humid Coastal Regions of Kenya: Impact Assessment Study Report. Presented
at the Small Ruminant KARI Review and Planning Meeting 28-30 April 1997.
Lyimo, S. and L. A. Mtenga. 1997. Research Country Position: Tanzania.
Participatory Planning by Objectives Workshop, KARI. Nairobi, March 20-21.
Njeru, Grace. 1997. The role of women in
agricultural production in developing countries: A case study of Farmers
with the Kenya Dual Purpose Goat. Poster presentation of Internships College
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