|The Small Ruminant Collaborative Research
Support Program in Kenya
Impact Assessment of the Kenya Dual Purpose Goat (KDPG) in 1996
|This is intended to provide information on the economic impact of the KDPG on small holder economies. In no way reflects all the research activities carried out by the projects in Kenya.|
|The SR-CRSP in Kenya has concentrated this year in research on the
commercial and small holder multiplication mechanisms of the Kenya Dual
Purpose Goat, a breed developed by the SR-CRSP that was placed on farm
for the first time at the end of 1993 to evaluate the impact to the household
and the possibilities for multiplying and promoting this breed in a sustainable
matter. This is a four way cross that was developed to facilitate adaptability
to harsh environments while providing at the same time milk for the household.
Research on the KDPG on farm was undertaken with five groups of farmers, three in the Coast (Coast Province) and two in Machakos (Eastern Province), this first year of full funding after the budget cuts of 1994-1995. One hundred households were targeted for this impact assessment and small holder multiplication experiment. Another multiplication scheme is also underway with commercial multipliers. The small holder multiplication is central to the SR-CRSP and KARI, because the goal of the program is to benefit the poor. These are usually those that can only afford and incorporate small stock into their system, as an initial means of security and capital accumulation.
This was a year of monitoring of the KDPG breed, developed through collaboration between the Kenya SR-CRSP and Kenya Agricultural Research Institute (KARI). This research component, is funded by USAID Title XII, with matching from University of Missouri, Texas A&M, Washington State University and Winrock International, and especial support from KARI NARP II USAID in 1996. Sociology and economics monitored the on-farm multiplication trials, managed by farmers, to look at the economic impact, flexibility of the package, gender domains and social impact of the KDPG technologies. From the original sample identified in 1993, 85 farmers remained as members in the five clusters formed to study the potential for communities to benefit from small stock in ensuring economic security and diversification
Four groups were formed with randomly selected households, of representative populations of the Coast (Kilifi and Kwale) and Machakos (highlands and lowlands) in Kenya. An additional group was formed in the Coast with farmers waiting to received heifers from Heifer Project International. In all the groups the manager of the goats is usually the woman. The products of the goat are allocated by the female head of household, though the marketing is usually the domain of the male head of household particularly in the Coast. Further study of intrahousehold allocation and income domains is required.
Preliminary results from the analysis of each cluster show that net income contributed by the KDPG at the household level is more important with poorer groups. The size of the contribution is equivalent to remittances, and of great importance because clusters have no access to credit, therefore generating cash for household consumption and for investment (Vuga and Kilifi).
The Kenya Dual Purpose Goat:
Income and Resources by Communities in Coast and Eastern Provinces in 1995-1996
|Cluster||Coast Province||Eastern Province|
|KDPG Net Income||2,607||1,360||1,003||1,325||1,530|
|% of Total Net Income||20||10||5||3||5|
|Other Livestock Inc.||1,515||2,359||1,3274||22,881||15,415|
|Land Use (acres)||15||9||8||17||28|
|Pass On (%) Rate||41||82||29||53||47|
|With only two years on the farm the KDPG is able to provide milk for
home consumption, with Kilifi generating total milk quantities that double
the average yield of milk from cattle in this group. Goats in the Vuga
group produce almost fifty percent of the milk that cattle produce in this
cluster. Analysis to compare the benefits between adopters and non adopters
continues this year, this will provide information to calculate the rates
of return to investments in this line of research. In collaboration with
Heifer Project International instruments will be applied to measure the
impact of the KDPG and goat projects on household welfare in other groups.
Preliminary results show that the KDPG contributes to diversification of the economic portfolio, milk availability at the household, cash generation and reduction of food insecurity. It is also showing positive externalities in terms of development of community, and building of social capital, especially in the poorer communities of the Coast.
Commercialization of the KDPG
Commercial multiplication, for the sustainable reproduction of this breed is underway. Two private commercial farms, Kilifi Plantation in the Coast and Kirathe Farms Ltd. in Nakuru started the process of commercial multiplication, in collaboration with the SR-CRSP and KARI. Both commercial farms are pleased with the performance of the KDPGs and have not experienced mortality problems.
Activities with the commercial multipliers began in July of 1996 when the animals were transferred. The first kidding took place in October. Kilifi Plantations started with 25 does and 17 bucks, and today have 80 KDPGs, with plans to upgrade all their goats to KDPGs (420) . This commercial firm has processed and sold 750 kg of goat milk in three months at the Coast, an area of milk deficits. Kirathe Farms, which received 25 does and 3 bucks, currently has 44 KDPGs, which will soon change because more does are kidding. Economic evaluation of the KDPG commercial multiplication efforts will be conducted this year as the goats are made available to the market. Potential multipliers continue to be evaluated, in hopes to target two more multipliers this year.
A proposal to regionalize the Kenya SR-CRSP to East Africa is being developed by the SR-CRSP Kenya team in collaboration with KARI, lead institution of ASARECA. Partnerships are being sought with non governmental organizations, research institutions and private firms in Kenya Uganda and Tanzania. A research and development proposal to benefit poor small holders through the KDPG for highland areas and semiarid crop livestock systems is currently being developed. Through the SR-CRSP, the University of Missouri-Columbia (sociology and economics), Texas A&M University (breeding), Washington State University (animal health) and Winrock International (production systems) are working together with KARI in this effort.